The C‑Section Rate Is Still Rising, and Shaming Doctors Won’t Solve It


Oct 1, 2017


Public discussions over unnecessary C-sections are not a recent phenomenon in India. In 1991 the author of a scholarly article lamented that while poor women in India suffer due to a lack of even simple and basic services, rich women suffer from needless surgeries, “such as unnecessary cesarean sections and hysterectomies.” In 1996, the Times of India carried a report titled ‘Caesareans at the drop of a hat,’ which claimed that private hospitals in Mumbai had C-section rates between 20% and 40%; a consulting obstetrician was quoted as saying there were too many “knife-happy” doctors in private nursing homes. Today, of course, few in India would be shocked at C-section rates of 40%, since we are now seeing some private hospitals performing the surgery on more than 90% of their pregnant patients.

(Unnecessary C-sections, which fuel most of these high rates, are an individual and public health hazard, though delving into the reasons why is outside the scope of this piece. To understand why we need to be worried about too many C-sections, read this elegant explanation by Dr. Neel Shah, one of America’s most passionate obstetricians. The current piece focuses more on approaches to solve the problem in an Indian context.)

The popular explanation of the C-section ‘epidemic’ — that doctors and hospitals are greedy and unethical — while valid to a considerable extent, is neither comprehensive nor helpful in terms of getting at sustainable solutions. If, for example, doctors received equal fees for C-sections and vaginal birth (more commonly understood as ‘normal delivery’), cesareans still would not lose their appeal: time and convenience are two crucial elements that the medical system dearly desires and the C-section plentifully provides. A normal delivery typically requires the investment of several more hours than does a C-section. Of course one might ask why an obstetrician is unwilling to devote those 10 to 16 (or more) hours: Is it not their professional duty?

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A good way to explain this is to take an example of the typical Indian ‘nursing home.’ Suppose it is owned and operated by an obstetrician, Dr. A, and that you, a full-term pregnant woman, are a patient of hers. You start feeling active labor contractions around 10 pm and reach the nursing home soon after. Unfortunately, Dr. A left the clinic just 15 minutes back, after overseeing the birth of another baby (and a full day of seeing patients before that). As you wait for her to arrive, you start getting more and more anxious. The nurse tries to calm you down. What you want, though, is not the nurse (however skilled she may be) but ‘my doctor.’ Dr. A finally arrives around midnight, and you and your family feel relieved that now you are ‘in safe hands.’ Your baby is born in the early morning hours, after which Dr A leaves for home. Later that afternoon, you receive a call from a friend. You miss it, but the friend leaves a message: “It was so annoying, Dr. A was more than two hours late to my appointment!”

While this scenario describes two normal deliveries in a private nursing home within 24 hours, it is not difficult to see how obstetricians feel pressured to go for the more convenient and less time-consuming C-sections. Dr. A could easily have scheduled both both women for C-sections at times that suited her — what generally, and unfortunately, happens in most Indian nursing homes — instead of enduring personal and professional stress, not to mention making clients/patients wait interminably.

Would it have been unethical of her to do so? In some cases, it is a straightforward answer of yes; for example if the doctor cites a fake reason for an emergency C-section, even though the patient would prefer a natural birth, then it is unethical. But in many cases, the situation is less black and white, and it’s this grey area that causes most current ‘solutions’ for the C-section epidemic – like the ‘naming and shaming’ of doctors, suggested by one government minister – to hit a wall. Such punishment-based approaches assume that obstetric decisions are simple and easy, and that if doctors perform a cesarean without a medical reason, they are always and simply wrong and unethical. But that’s just not the case.

Let’s go back to Dr. A. To prevent the pressures of normal deliveries taking up most of her time and energy, let’s assume she employs two confident nurse-midwives with impeccable skills. She will soon realize, however, that many women and families, especially in urban India, do not think highly of nurses and insist on a doctor being present during childbirth. (This of course is not helped by the fact that the majority of nursing colleges in India  are privately owned — for profit — and are more like degree-churning factories than strong training institutes.) Another ‘solution’ Dr. A might try is group practice. Ideally, if two or more obstetricians have a common practice and clinic, they can divide the work among themselves and make sure that one of them will always be available for patients. Such group practice, however, is easier said than done, especially in a field like obstetrics where the personal relationship a woman develops with her doctor is crucial. It is also unfair to expect every doctor to be comfortable and open to the prospect of something as financially and organizationally complex and stressful as group practice.

With midwifery and group practice impractical, Dr. A could (if she is still motivated not to succumb to the pressure of doing more C-sections than medically necessary) limit the number of patients she sees and radically hike her fees. This might even work for her personally (though on a large scale, it won’t, as only a few wealthy families would both need and be able to afford such pricey obstetric services). If it does, however, her surplus of patients will be diverted to other obstetricians – who will then experience additional workload and, thus, additional pressure to take the ‘easier’ option of C-sections. (India anyway has very few specialists with respect to its population.)

These are a few of the hindrances to making a purely rational, medical decision that an obstetrician has to contend with. There are others, too: families demanding precise birth dates and times for astrological reasons, genuine medical uncertainty about the health of the fetus, the risk-aversive attitude of both families and their consulting doctors, etc.

I note these difficulties of obstetric practice primarily to suggest we not spend our time devising innovative punishments for doctors grappling with the inherent, often competing and ethically ambiguous demands of their profession, but rather channel efforts toward helping doctors genuinely interested in reducing their C-section rates. This is an approach that navigates the grey area of ethics and also ensures better care for women. Besides, it will help create an enabling, rather than punitive, environment for the newer generation of doctors — who are already apprehensive about the largely counterproductive web of legal injunctions around medical practice.

With that in mind, the government, having already displayed interest in addressing this issue, must arrive at an evolving strategy through a general consensus of patient advocates, doctors, nurses and midwives, public health experts, and social workers. It could begin such a process by picking the brains of those doctors and hospitals which have already made great strides in reducing their C-section rates. It might be more tempting for politicians to be seen ‘doing something’ by making sure the ‘bad guys’ are punished — but leaders must rise above that. The general public, for its part, can help by ensuring that public opinion focuses on constructive and sustainable solutions instead of divisive and polarizing claims and blames. The objective of improved and enriched maternal and child health can be best achieved if activists and politicians abandon their default attitude of suspicion, and acknowledge doctors as equal partners; and if doctors abandon their default stance of superiority, and value the participation of non-medical groups in medical decision-making.

This is obviously an approach that will be neither easy nor immediately effective. ​It is pertinent to remember, however, that C-section rates have skyrocketed not due to any purposeful efforts exclusively directed in that direction, but due to the arbitrary coming together, since the 1980s, of several social, cultural and political factors which then enmeshed with an imperfect healthcare system. Only by thinking ‘out of the docs’ will be able to take up the gargantuan task of addressing this daunting medley of issues. Otherwise, if we continue our current focus on punishing doctors, we will simply end up reducing (and alienating) obstetricians… but not reducing the number of C-sections.



Written By Kiran Kumbhar

Kiran Kumbhar is a former physician who now studies history of medicine at Harvard University. His primary research looks at the cultural history of medicine and of the patient-doctor relationship in post-1947 India. He also writes on public health and Indian history, and has been published in the Times of India, The Wire, and Scroll among others. His articles can be found at kirankumbhar.com.

  1. Abhishek Bhartia

    Excellent article that highlights systemic factors behind the cesarean epidemic in India and points to the importance of moving away from “shaming” doctors and demonising private hospitals as profiteers. In a qualitative survey conducted by our hospital in Delhi, Sitaram Bhartia Institute, we found that obstetricians believed “convenience” to be a leading factor for the high c section rates in private practice. However, I like to view obstetricians as victims of a system that leaves them unsupported and expects that they should be available 24 x 7. The government should use less of the stick and instead improve nurse training in its teaching hospitals and introduce midwifery in the country. And professional OB/GYN societies should be asked to provide leadership on this issue rather than being attacked. After all most people become doctors to serve, not conduct unnecessary surgeries for profit.

  2. Ruth malik

    Midwives are needed. Doctors need to win back trust after generations of abuse. The current typical birth is one of overuse of sonogphies, bogus diagnosis, unnecessary c section, or an unnecessary internal exam followed by stripping of membranes without consent, too often as early as 36 weeks and ending in brutal and unnecessary episiotomies. Doctors have to take some responsibility and offer solutions. Disrespect and abuse total lack for evidence based practice is not ok and there is no excuse and they need to stand up and not be cry babies, they are not the victims here.

    • Parul Kotdawala

      This is typical biased mind speaking! In fact the article here is an excellent analysis. I suggest that Ruth Malik should spend one week with any obstetrician wherever that doctor goes and whatever he/she does for the patient. Only then she/he should put up these comments.


  3. Nora Kropp

    The author quickly and definitively writes off the group practice and midwifery practice as options for Indian doctors and Indian women. What a shame! These are two solutions that have worked in most parts of the world and in limited scope in India itself. Just because these two solutions may take some time and effort is not reason to so easily discount them altogether. As the author points out, there are examples of hospitals and doctors that have brought down their c-section rates. Some use group practice. Similarly there are examples of midwives working in India with very low section rates, low maternal and neonatal mortality rates, using nurse midwives, accepted by the public. With time and concerted effort these models are viable on a large scale in India. Furthermore, mandatory reporting of mode of delivery (vaginal vs. c-section) is a basic, internationally recognised measure of quality in maternal health. Mandatory reporting is not only used to ‘name and shame’ but to get a clear picture of what is actually occurring. From a public health perspective, without accurate data on outcomes (mode of delivery) it is (and has been) difficult, if not impossible, to have a meaningful discussion or analysis on the topic. Let us know and believe that the private Indian maternal health system is not so broken that it can’t incorporate group practice, midwifery on a large scale and reporting of basic outcomes. In fact it can and many people are working toward just that to ensure better outcomes and more options for women, babies, families, and practitioners.

    • Parul Kotdawala

      Oh dear, so little is your knowledge about Indian system! All deliveries that happen in hospitals are registered with birth registrars. And mode of delivery is also an integral part of this! So where is the question of not knowing the mode of delivery data?!
      Among home deliveries also almost 95% + are registered by the health workers. Only a few those happen in outbound areas of tribal people might be missed out on registration, and these would be vaginal deliveries only. So all CS would be registered for sue!

  4. Reba Daniel

    How can you write off new paradigms of care that have never been tried out in India? Group practice by committed doctors – has not been done in a constructive, collaborative, holistic manner – instead of writing out these possibilities, we should be getting inventive about tweaking the models – why do physicians not get that a won-win situation is possible to a large extent? Also, it is sad to see that in all of this conversation – not once is anyone talking about the best physiological and emotional outcomes for mother and baby, evidence based and informed choices – this is the area that needs to be adressed if anyone is serously looking to change the existing materity care model for the better. A change that helps all i not going to come is any of the factions is going to choose to feel hunted, and policies are looking only at figures. We have reached a time in history where the consumer experience is the key to good business, and respecting human beings is the key to good relationships. There’s no way you can turn your back on that. So, please look and and talk more about the women who are actually giving birth. If they are respected and treated right, the doctors have much less to fear.

  5. Subarna Ghosh

    Playing the blame game is definitely not the answer but by resisting simple demands like displaying C section rates, medical service providers are alienating themselves from the very women they are supposed to serve. Also, women ask for doctors during deliveries since we lack professional, qualified midwives who can support her. While the overworked doctor deserves sympathy just like any other overworked professional in our country, the UN supported woman in labour is a human rights issue. Maternal health has to put women at the centre – everything/everyone else is meant to help women live better.

  6. Dr Pankaj Garg

    In India there are more female obstetricians than males and the female doctors are not only doctors, they have much more at hands. Going to corporate hospital at odd times, leaving your small kids at home for prolonged hours, pressure from husbands to come home early and some of the other reasons for “Convenience” being the most common cause of cesarian sections and I sincerely feel it’s not money. There are many hospital including my own, where charges for normal delivery and section are same. The solution to some extend lies in making atmosphere for making more male obstetricians who are likely to not succumb to the “Personal convenience” issues. It’s not a misogynistic view but something which is very practical in current day India.

  7. Vaani Minhas

    Very well written article and rightly said the doctors in India are overburdened and exhausted. The current doctor-patient ratio in India is 1: 1456 against the WHO recommendation of 1:1000. Most of the time doctors don’t get enough time to spend with their families and do end up missing some quality family time together, be it their son’s birthday or special family event. It is important that the Indian Government should start working on improving medical education and skillset of associated staff like nurses and midwives. One such good example is ASHA workers working to improve healthcare in rural Indian villages. They mostly are the first point of contact for pregnant women during the time of delivery. Building up the nursing system which is competent, skilled, and efficient not only will improve the Indian healthcare system but will also ease the burden faced by OB/GYN in India.


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